How to Evaluate an Exclusive 3P Seller on Amazon

Cassandra Shaffer

February 3, 2021

Should I sell 1P or 3P on Amazon? What about globally? How can I ensure my ecommerce distribution strategy gives me the most control of my online channels to reduce channel conflict and price erosion? These are all important questions for ecommerce businesses to consider as they evaulate their distribution strategy and decide whether to sell 1P, 3P, or use an exclusive third party seller.

Companies face multiple selling options when deciding how to go to market on Amazon. The four main ones are:

  • Sell products directly to Amazon (i.e. the traditional “1P” approach)
  • Sell through a hybrid model, with some products sold 1P through Vendor Central and others through on the Seller Central third party marketplace
  • Sell solely on Seller Central through their own storefront
  • Sell solely through Seller Central using an exclusive third party seller (“3P”)

This decision is significant for brands, and each approach brings its own unique challenges and opportunities. Indeed, this decision can—oftentimes more than any other ecommerce-related decision today—have the greatest impact on a brand’s ability to achieve its desired growth metrics, while maintaining overall brand stability and control across all other channels.

We’ll discuss in this blog how, for brands who want to maintain control over their own destiny while still reaping the sales opportunities in the Amazon channel, selling their products through an expert exclusive 3P seller can optimize sales growth while maintaining brand integrity.

Amazon challenges: Unauthorized sellers, brand equity erosion, CRaP’d products, & increasing channel conflict

The fact is, many brands engaged in a 1P go-to-market strategy are experiencing some form of brand erosion, which is often exacerbated by the presence of unauthorized resellers and the realities of Amazon’s dynamic pricing algorithm.

A typical scenario for brands across a myriad of verticals is as follows:

  1. The brand enters the Amazon channel without a clear distribution strategy, often selling directly to Amazon and allowing other customers to sell on Amazon as well (sometimes with no product segmentation strategy).
  2. Due to a lack of distribution controls in other sales channels, products are diverted or arbitrage opportunities leveraged by multiple unauthorized third party sellers, who promptly list their products on Seller Central.
  3. A battle for the Buy Box ensues between Amazon, other authorized sellers, and the free-riding, unauthorized third party sellers. Each slashes advertised prices in an effort to beat the other and maintain Buy Box control, and the downward spiral ensues.
  4. Making matters worse, if the brand also sells on other major ecommerce platforms, this spiral will quicken, with the other retailers chasing prices advertised on Amazon, Amazon chasing the other retailers, the other retailers chasing unauthorized third party sellers, and so on.
  5. Authorized customers in core brick-and-mortar channels soon begin complaining and clamoring for price concessions, and products on Amazon may end up CraPped out or Amazon may likewise demand additional concessions.

Virtually no brand, manufacturer, or product vertical is immune to this new reality. If brands do nothing, the end result inevitably is incredible downward pressure on their brand value and a significant rise in channel conflict. This can lead to what we call the Profitability Death Spiral, because as your price and brand spirals out of control online, your profits erode—on ecommerce and eventually on brick-and-mortar channels too.

The Profitability Death Spiral for Ecommerce | Pattern

Against this backdrop, executives are increasingly turning to their ecommerce and sales teams, demanding that they “fix this” right away. For the reasons below, a crucial first step towards fixing the problem—and achieving brand stability—is to take a critical look at your company’s online marketplace distribution strategy and making sure it realistically aligns with your key brand metrics.

Retaking control: Evaluating your Amazon distribution strategy

For many brands, while ecommerce sales remain a minority percentage of overall revenues, the channel conflict and erosion caused by a lack of control over online sales becomes the proverbial “tail that wags the dog” across all channels. Companies will find that their ability to protect and grow their brands in today’s retail environment will be significantly impacted by the Amazon distribution strategy they select. The chosen strategy will greatly inform whether control can be achieved, in addition to defining the additional actions that need to be taken or avoided along the way.

The following chart describes the pros and cons that need to be evaluated when considering which distribution strategy is best for your company. As is evident, for many companies seeking to maximize growth while protecting brand value, selling through an exclusive 3P seller often is the best Amazon GTM strategy.

In summary, by selling through an exclusive 3P seller that is capable of handling large product volumes, respects MAP, and works hand-in-hand with the brand in terms of advertising, search, content, images, product descriptions and the like, brands can achieve significant control over their products in the Amazon channel and dramatically improve sales performance. The brand’s products will be removed from dynamic pricing and no longer subject to being CraPped out, all while benefiting from the exclusive 3P seller’s intensive promotional and search enhancement efforts. For many brands, this strategy can be the quickest way to resolve challenges associated with channel conflict, brand erosion, and an overall lack of control in the channel, all while realizing improved growth metrics.

Ecommerce distribution strategy pros & cons


Distribution StrategyProsConsBest Candidates
Multiple Resellers & No ControlsRequires no effort on the part of the brand.Brand will have no control over its online sales, brand image, product quality or consumer experience. Brand will likely face a high degree of intrabrand competition, significant erosion of its value, and material channel conflict. Online sellers will have no incentive to invest in a brand's growth. Companies that have no real concern for long-term brand value (i.e. those selling highly commoditized, low margin, short life-cycle products and relying predominantly on raw sales volume as a success metric).
Brand Sells All Applicable Product Line 1PRequires minimal involvement. Amazon will likely win the majority of sales in the channel given its ability to secure the greatest Buy Box percentage.Brand is unable to have a meaningful MAP program, as Amazon will typically not follow MAP policies. Products are captive to dynamic pricing algorithms, which will benchmark off of unauthorized 3P sellers and other retailers, often automatically reducing price to keep Buy Box. This creates significant downward pressure on advertised prices and, over time, material erosion of brand equity. “CraP’d” products and frequent concessions demanded. In light of recent announcements, may no longer be an option for many brands.Companies that want to actively engage with Amazon platform and have no strategic need to preserve brand value over an extended timeframe for products at issue. Again, brands whose key metric is pure sales volumes. Best suited to companies selling high volume, short life-cycle products, and companies not susceptible to intrabrand competition.
1P/3P HybridAffords the company the ability to insulate strategically important and/or new product launches through 3P distribution. More commoditized and pure volume plays can continue to be sold 1P.Company will continue to face control challenges associated with IP products.Companies that sell a differentiated mix of products, with some commoditized items and others that are more strategically important from a brand value and consumer perception perspective.
Brand Operates Own 3P StorefrontHighest margin in marketplace channel. Brand maintains full control of all marketplace activity.Requires commitment of material internal and fulfillment infrastructure to maximize potential. Brand must realistically evaluate whether its internal resources are capable of driving equivalent performance on an expert 3P seller.Companies with deep internal experience in marketplace sales and growth tactics, as well as the resources to execute on the same.
Exclusive 3P SellerCompany obtains a true “partner,” highly incentivized to protect and grow its brand. Ability to leverage true marketplace growth expertise. Typically respect MAP policies—company not subject to dynamic pricing algorithms. Company maintains control over brand image and presentation. Oftentimes growth levels achievable that are well beyond current performance. MAP stability on Amazon channel.Requires company’s dedication to restoring order to distribution channels and clearly defining how products may be sold in an authorized manner across channels. Brand must have a clear strategy for ensuring an authorized 3P seller is capable of winning the vast majority of the Buy Box.Companies that desire a “partner” in marketplace channels to which to largely outsource marketplace management. Companies facing erosion of brand equity due to presence of unauthorized sellers, competing marketplaces, or other market dynamics. Companies seeking to materially increase sales on marketplace channels. Companies seeking to reduce channel conflict and protect long term brand value.

E3P checklist: What to look for when selecting an exclusive 3P seller

As more and more companies realize the benefits of the exclusive 3P selling model, more and more 3P sellers crowd the market. The result is a significant amount of noise, with newcomers and fly-by-nighters vying for brand attention. Oftentimes, 3P seller pitches become indistinguishable, leading to confusion for companies who want to know who is best.

Companies evaluating 3P sellers should carefully probe and evaluate the following criteria before selecting the exclusive seller for their products on Amazon:

  • What major brands are they already selling? You don’t want to be a “guinea pig” or the seller’s first foray into partnering with a major brand. The ideal 3P seller will already represent multiple major brands and be able to quickly provide references.
  • What level of sales is the seller generating in marketplace channels on behalf of its partner brands? The most successful 3P sellers are selling in excess of $300 million of their partners’ products annually.
  • Do they have the ability to distribute into and sell your products on international marketplace platforms? The best 3P sellers have the ability to distribute products into major international online marketplaces, providing a global one-stop marketplace solution.
  • What is their average customer annual growth rate? The best 3P sellers will be fully transparent with respect to their average brand partner growth rates, which should significantly out-pace industry average growth rates.
  • **What is their average brand partner MAP compliance rate? **In the US, the best 3P sellers will be similarly transparent regarding the overall MAP compliance rates for the products they sell.
  • Will they pay for the legal foundation necessary to achieve control over your online sales and stabilize your channels? Will they pay for the unauthorized seller enforcement truly needed to clean up your channels? The best 3P sellers happily pay these costs because they know that this work is critically important for them to realize the value of channel exclusivity through maximized sales.
  • What marketing and advertising support will they provide? The best 3P sellers contribute significantly to these efforts and provide detailed analytics regarding the efficacy of various approaches so that resources can be focused on tactics that will generate real growth.
  • What is their relationship with the major marketplaces? Are they able to access services available directly from marketplaces on behalf of their customers? The best 3P sellers will enjoy overall positive relationships with Amazon and have meaningful contacts within the organization.
  • Does the 3P seller have inherent advantages with respect to Buy Box ownership? This includes: large number of units sold over time, a very high seller rating, high sales volume across multiple product categories, low defect scores, and the ability to purchase and maintain large amounts of inventory. The best 3P sellers share this data and clearly explain how it benefits their ability to win the Buy Box over lesser sellers.
  • What investments has the 3P seller made in personnel who have deep experience growing brands on marketplaces? What specific marketplace expertise do these individuals or teams bring? The best 3P sellers have retained high level ex-Amazon and other marketplace executives, they have top notch data and technology teams, and they have first in class distribution processes around the world.
  • What enhanced quality control measures will the seller implement with respect to your products? The best 3P sellers will go the extra mile to provide enhanced quality controls, inventory auditing procedures, and other testing to ensure the highest quality product in-channel and to best support legal claims against unauthorized sellers.
  • What data and analytics can the 3P seller provide? The best 3P sellers provide robust monitoring and data that enhances the ability to drive sales rather than simply report on “vanity” metrics.
  • What is the 3P seller’s customer retention rate over time? The best 3P sellers have extremely high customer retention rates across a number of different product categories and will be fully transparent with that information.
  • What case studies is the seller able to present? The best 3P sellers will have case studies clearly explaining how their efforts lead to material shifts in business success for their partner brands.
  • What top tier references can the seller provide? The best 3P sellers will be able to provide multiple references at diversified businesses for which they have delivered superior results.

3P seller red flags: When to keep looking

As discussed above, as the Amazon marketplace continues in its dominance, new “professional” 3P sellers pop up all the time. Each has a slick website and makes largely indistinguishable promises concerning increased sales, channel management, and the like. However, in the world of 3P resellers, all are NOT created equally.

When you identify the issues, consider looking elsewhere:

  • The 3P seller represents only a few smaller brands or a series of obscure brands about which you have no knowledge or familiarity.
  • The 3P seller is unable to present clear, comprehensive case studies demonstrating their partner brands’ successes over time.
  • The 3P seller is unable to commit to regular product purchases at market-appropriate levels.
  • The 3P seller lacks true internal thought leadership in terms of marketplace strategy, data and analytics, and fulfillment processes.
  • The 3P seller is actually a former diverter or gray market 3P seller and is now simply dabbling with direct buying relationships.
  • The 3P seller lacks any distribution or fulfillment capabilities.
  • The 3P seller cannot offer services on international marketplaces.
  • The 3P seller is unable to provide sophisticated data and analytics around marketing and advertising spend and/or enforcement efforts.
  • The 3P seller is unable to provide enhanced quality controls for products sold into the marketplace channel.
  • Finally, the 3P seller can’t or won’t fund the legal work needed to support this model.

An exclusive 3P seller could be an advantage & help control online channels

Many companies can significantly alleviate—if not solve—their biggest pain points in the marketplace channel by moving towards an exclusive 3P strategy. The alternative is to do nothing (which could be a disaster), or keep products solely 1P and face consistent downward pressure on your brand value. By placing your products with a strong 3P seller on Amazon and conducting robust enforcement against remaining unauthorized sellers, brands can stabilize their brands on Amazon and across their other channels all the while realizing increased growth.

Pattern is a global exclusive 3P seller, data provider, and strategic partner. If your company is considering using an exclusive 3P seller, confused about the best go to market strategy for your products, or has marketplace challenges you want to solve with an E3P solution, get in touch today to learn what Pattern can do for your brand.

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Sept 20, 2022

Global Ecommerce Weekly News: 20th September 2022

Get up to date with this week's ecommerce headlines from around the globe. --- Amazon News --- Amazon to raise pay and add extra work benefits for delivery drivers Following the rise in fuel prices and protests by Amazon workers, the ecommerce giant is raising its delivery drivers’ pay and adding more work benefits. Amazon has mentioned that it will be investing $450 million into rate increases along with an education program and a Delivery Service Partners program. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/09/14/amazon-to-raise-delivery-drivers-pay-and-add-more-work-benefits/) Amazon announces it will give away shipping software to merchants at no cost Amazon has recently announced that it will be giving ecommerce merchants free software to manage shopper orders on and off its platform as it extends its reach. The ecommerce giant will be ending monthly costs for sellers using Veeqo, a shipping software it recently acquired and instead offer to them a new, free shipping software. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/09/16/amazon-to-give-away-shipping-software-to-merchants/) --- Other Marketplace News --- Walmart unveils new virtual fitting rooms In an effort to drive clothing sales, Walmart has launched virtual fitting rooms while competitors reduce spending amid the cost of living crisis. The virtual try-on tool can be used by Walmart customers to virtually measure the clothing items and see how the products would look on them. Shoppers will now be able to see how over 270,000 clothing items on Walmart’s ecommerce site would look on their bodies. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/09/15/walmart-launches-virtual-fitting-rooms-to-drive-clothing-sales/?utmsource=Retail+Gazette+Subscribers&utmcampaign=2da7f0f8f8-EMAILCAMPAIGN202209150742&utmmedium=email&utmterm=0d23e2768b6-2da7f0f8f8-61040615) THG slashes sales and profit expectations The Hut Group has slashed its forecasts for 2022 as rising interest rates, inflation and energy costs take a toll on consumers. Previously, THG estimated its sales growth to be between 22-25% but after a recent evaluation, has lowered this prediction to between 10-15%. Initial predictions did not take into account the negative effects of ceasing sales in Russia and Ukraine along with the impact that the cost-of-living has had on consumer spending. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/09/15/thg-slashes-forecast-as-cost-of-living-crisis-hits-consumers-wallets/) --- Other Ecommerce News --- DHL and Post Office team up to provide click and collect services Through a partnership between delivery company, DHL and Post Office, a new click and collect service is to be tested at Post Offices before rolling out to over 1000 branches across the UK. Online shoppers will now have the option of choosing their local Post Office as a collection point, and DHL will fulfil the delivery aspect, opening up networks for both parties. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/09/14/post-office-partners-with-dhl-express-to-provide-click-and-collect-services/) US consumer watchdog plans to further regulate the BNPL sector The US Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) has raised concerns regarding the collection of consumer data and the fast-growing nature of the BNPL sector, which includes companies such as Affirm and Klarna. The CFPB is worried that these companies could be negatively impacting consumers’ financial health and aims to put better regulations in place to ensure consumers are safe and empowered. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/09/16/us-consumer-watchdog-to-start-regulating-bnpl-sector/) Japanese ecommerce market estimated to grow by 6.9% in 2022 The ecommerce market in Japan, largely dominated by domestic online retailers including Reakuten and Mercari, is set to reach $194.3 billion USD in 2022, after seeing an annual compound growth rate of 5.2% between 2018 and 2021. This makes Japan the fourth leading ecommerce market globally, following China, the US, and the UK. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/09/13/japan-ecommerce-market-to-grow-by-6-9-in-2022/) Ecommerce brands are spending more on TikTok ads TikTok may soon be surpassing Facebook and Google as the most lucrative advertising channel, with ecommerce brands spending 60% more on TikTok ads in Q2. Facebook is still ahead as the top choice for ecommerce advertisers but only grew by 5.6% from Q1, while Google grew 20.5% in Q2, and Snap declined 10.8% in Q2. [Read more on SearchEngineLand](https://searchengineland.com/ecommerce-brands-spent-60-more-on-tiktok-ads-in-q2-387876)
Sept 13, 2022

Global Ecommerce Weekly News: 13th September 2022

Get up to date with this week's ecommerce headlines from around the globe. --- Amazon News --- Amazon scales back on US warehouse facilities Amazon is shutting down two facilities with 300 employees, discarding plans for 42 facilities, and delaying plans to open a further 21 buildings across the US. The ecommerce giant is scaling back on hiring as well as the expansion of its vast delivery network, as it was left with an excess of space following its rapid expansion during the pandemic. [Read more on Business Insider](https://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-closes-2-facilities-scraps-plans-42-new-buildings-report-2022-9?r=US&IR=T) --- Other Marketplace News --- JD.com is ‘betting’ on ecommerce grocery market Amidst a slowing economy and a decline in ecommerce, Chinese ecommerce giant JD.com has increased its urgency to seek new growth engines. The company is looking to boost its online grocery business through offline partnerships and expansion into lower-tier cities, where it may be able to unleash more consumption power. [Read more on The Star](https://www.thestar.com.my/tech/tech-news/2022/09/08/chinese-ecommerce-giant-jdcom-bets-big-on-online-grocery-lower-tier-markets-amid-slowing-economy) Shopee shuts operations in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico Sea’s ecommerce arm, Shopee, has shut local operations in some LATAM countries but will continue to maintain cross-border operations in a few markets. Latin America is Sea’s most important region following South-east Asia, accounting for close to 19% of its revenue in 2021. The move away from these countries is largely due to increased levels of macro uncertainty and rising interest and inflation rates, and rather putting a focus on its core operations. [Read more on Straits Times](https://www.straitstimes.com/business/companies-markets/seas-shopee-shuts-operations-in-argentina-chile-colombia-mexico-sources) --- Other Ecommerce News --- Instagram scales back in-stream shopping elements Instagram is re-examining its approach as it hasn’t been able to make ‘fetch’ happen. ‘Fetch’ in this context being the online shopping trends which have become all-consuming in China, and what Western social platforms have been hoping to add into their apps to make them more addictive and revenue-generating. Consumers have not been swayed by the latest shopping tools on TikTok and Instagram, leading to Instagram scaling back its in-stream shopping program. [Read more on SocialMediaToday](https://www.socialmediatoday.com/news/instagram-scales-back-in-stream-shopping-elements-as-it-re-examines-its-app/631276/) FedEx Express supporting the growth of cross border ecommerce FedEx express has expanded its international commerce shipping service to four more markets across the Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa (AMEA) region in an effort to support the strong development of ecommerce in this region. Three of the fastest growing markets, the Philippines, Indonesia and Vietnam are leading Southeast Asia’s ecommerce sales, which is set to reach $100 billion by 2023. [Read more on Post & Parcel](https://postandparcel.info/149889/news/e-commerce/fedex-express-supports-the-growth-of-cross-border-e-commerce-within-the-amea-region/) India ramps up hiring as companies prepare for shoppers Ecommerce companies are getting ready for the festive season by rapidly expanding their temporary workforce. As ecommerce in India grows, the country is predicted to have 372 million online shoppers by the end of 2022. The festive season this year, running from October to December, is expected to see a two-fold increase in logistics and delivery alone. During this period, companies are predicted to add 20% more to their existing workforce base, with a 8-10% higher pay scale compared to last year. [Read more on Business Insider India](https://www.businessinsider.in/business/ecommerce/news/the-great-indian-festival-of-hiring-e-commerce-companies-gear-up-for-indias-shoppers/articleshow/94000346.cms)
Sept 6, 2022

Global Ecommerce Weekly News: 6th September 2022

Get up to date with this week's ecommerce headlines from around the globe. --- Amazon News --- Amazon announces new inventory and distribution service, AWD Amazon has launched Amazon Warehousing and Distribution (AWD), providing inventory and distribution services to its sellers as a means of addressing current supply chain issues. AWD is now available for sellers using Fulfilment by Amazon (FBA), i.e. outsourcing their fulfilment to the platform. Amazon has plans to expand the service outside the platform in 2023. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/09/02/amazon-introduces-new-service-to-help-solve-supply-chain-challenges/) Amazon Web Services (AWS) launches in the UAE AWS, Amazon’s cloud-computing platform offering, has launched its second region in the Middle East and now provides its services in the UAE. The move will now allow anyone in the UAE who utilises cloud technologies to harness AWS’s advanced platforms and APIs. An estimated $11 billion USD is expected to be added to the UAE’s GDP thanks to the implementation, with an average of 6,000 external vendor jobs to be created annually. AWS is now available in 87 zones across 27 regions, with sights set on expanding further across Australia, Canada, India, Israel, New Zealand, Spain, and Switzerland. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/08/30/amazon-web-services-launches-region-in-uae/) --- Other Marketplace News --- Lazada to launch in Europe Alibaba-owned ecommerce platform Lazada is set to launch in Europe, marking a refreshed internationalisation push from the company. The move follows toughening economic conditions and performance in Southeast Asia, advancing the need to tap overseas markets. In Europe, Lazada will face tough competition from giants like Amazon and Zalando. Lazada’s exact entry strategy is to be confirmed and will be reliant on macroeconomic and market conditions, according to Lazada CEO James Dong. [Read more on DigitalCommerce360](https://www.digitalcommerce360.com/2022/09/01/alibabas-lazada-to-take-on-amazon-zalando-in-europe-push/) Chinese ecommerce giant Pinduoduo to launch cross-border platform in the United States Pinduoduo, a Chinese ecommerce giant rivalling Alibaba and JD, has announced it will be launching a new cross-border ecommerce platform. The marketplace is set to launch in the United States next month, as part of the company’s larger push into new markets. Pinduoduo found success in China thanks to its rock-bottom price offerings and harnessing of social commerce marketing, emulating strategies similar to fast-fashion giant Shein. [Read more on Yahoo Finance](https://uk.finance.yahoo.com/news/pinduoduo-launch-international-e-commerce-034129263.html) Alibaba launches its biggest B2B sales event, ‘Super September’ China ecommerce giant, Alibaba, has now launched its month-long B2B sales event ‘Super September’. The event provides 40 million buyers and 200,000 suppliers with the ability to connect on the platform, showcasing a ‘virtually unlimited’ number of products. The event hopes to foster new cross-border business relationships to tackle supply chain challenges currently faced by businesses. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/09/01/alibaba-launches-super-september-b2b-sales-event/) --- Other Ecommerce News --- Klarna’s losses quadruple in first half of 2022 BNPL provider, Klarna, has reported losses of $581 million USD for the first half of 2022. This figure is almost four times larger than a year earlier, where $129 million USD in losses were reported. The company attributes the losses to employee costs, technology investments, and rising credit losses. Klarna’s figure reporting comes amidst worsening economic conditions, fresh legal and regulatory scrutiny, and pressure from Big Tech competitors. [Read more on The Financial Times](https://www.ft.com/content/483451db-9221-4ca4-83a6-b4ddc6bfcfbb) [Read more on the Guardian](https://www.theguardian.com/business/2022/aug/31/klarna-losses-more-than-triple-as-consumer-spending-slows) One fifth of Snap employees to be laid off amidst poor financial performance Social media platform Snap (‘Snapchat’) has announced it will be laying off 20% of its employees and closing out a number of projects following a year of poor financial results.The move will see 1,200 employees globally lose their jobs, saving the company an estimated $500 million USD in costs. Snap is currently valued at $20 billion, an 84% decrease from its valuation of $130 billion last year. [Read more on Charged Retail](https://www.chargedretail.co.uk/2022/09/01/snap-to-lay-off-20-of-its-workforce-and-wind-down-a-number-of-projects/)